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06/19/2018

Child abuse as immigration policy: has America lost its moral compass?

by Arthur Caplan, Ph.D.

The President of the United States, after discussion with key aides in the White House, implemented a policy in June of 2018 allegedly aimed at discouraging illegal border crossings by asylum seekers and others from entering the United States.  Rather than maintaining the previous privileged status for migrant families, he and his aides settled on a strategy for separating children from their families to deter efforts at entering the country illegally.  After a backlash, the President tried to blame Democrats in Congress for breaking up families by insisting that if they would change current immigration law and approve the building of a hugely expensive wall along the border with Mexico, the rending of families would stop.

The decision to use vulnerable infants and children as weapons in the immigration wars by splitting them from their families and placing them in internment camps represents an utter failure of ethics on the part of Trump and anyone who would carry out such activities.

It is obvious, as many medical and psychological experts and societies pointed out, that taking children away from their parents is traumatic to the degree that it produces measurable mental and physical stress that is inimical for their development. Isolating children in makeshift detention camps in scorching desert heat is cruel, dangerous, and unhealthy.  There is no moral justification for harming children in order to get their parents to behave differently—none.

And harming children is in itself a dire moral evil.  Forget the deterrent impact on immigration and asylum seeking the President sought.  No amount of ‘benefit’ justifies bullying, coercing, and terrifying children.  It is repugnant to use children solely as means to political ends.

Inhumanity ought not be a feature of any civilized society and it is inhumane to isolate and hold children as hostages without access to their families.  There is no one to blame but Trump and his administration.  All of us are complicit if we do not insist that this cruelty cease immediately and that anyone involved in conceiving or administering such a barbaric policy be called to justice.

[For more information, see Nancy Berlinger’s post on Bioethics Forum here.]

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

Ethicists Petition to Keep Families Together

To President Donald J. Trump, Attorney General Jefferson Sessions and Secretary of Homeland Security Kirstjen Nielsen

We, concerned ethicists, bioethicists, physicians, theologians and attorneys, call upon you to immediately cease your policy of separating children from their parents, many of whom are seeking asylum in this country. This policy has the express purpose of using this blatant harm and human rights violation against innocent children as a means of deterring their adult parents from coming to the U.S. Children must not be abused in this way for political purposes. Children should not be put at grave risk as a means to an end. The undersigned believe your policy is utterly unethical, manifestly immoral and will cause irreparable and potentially permanent harm to the most vulnerable among us. It must end immediately.

Sincerely,[*]

1. Arthur L. Caplan, PhD
Drs. William F and Virginia Connolly Mitty Professorand Founding Head of the Division of Medical Ethics, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

2. John Sexton, JD, PhD
President and Dean Emeritus, Benjamin Butler Professor of Law, NYU
New York, NY

3. Dominic A. Sisti, PhD
Director of the Scattergood Program for Applied Ethics of Behavioral Health Care, Assistant Professor in the Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

4. Ezekiel Emanuel, MD, PhD
Vice Provost for Global Initiatives and chair of the Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

5. Daniel Callahan, PhD
President Emeritus, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

6. Alison Bateman-House, PhD, MPH, MA
Assistant Professor, Division of Medical Ethics, NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

7. Jonathan D. Moreno, PhD
David and Lyn Silfen University Professor, Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Department of History and Sociology of Science, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

8. Ariane Lewis, MD
Associate Professor, Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery Division of Medical Ethics Affiliate, Department of Population Health, NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

9. Shana D. Stites, PsyD, MS, MA
Senior Research Investigator, Penn Project on Precision Medicine for the Brain, Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy
Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

10. Steven S. Sharfstein, MD
Former President of the American Psychiatric Association, President Emeritus, Sheppard Pratt Health System

11. Dale Jamieson, PhD
Professor of Environmental Studies and Philosophy, Affiliated Professor of Law, Affiliated Professor of Medical Ethics, New York University
New York, NY

12. Brendan Parent, JD
Director of the Applied Health Program at the NYU School of Professional Studies, Faculty of the Division of Medical Ethics, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

13. George J Annas, JD, MPH
Director, Center for Health Law, Ethics &
Human Rights, Boston University School of Public Health
Boston, MA

14. Kelly McBride Folkers, MA
Research Associate, Division of Medical Ethics, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

15. Steven Joffe, MD, MPH
Emanuel and Robert Hart Professor of Medical Ethics & Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

16. Moti Gorin, PhD, MBE
Assistant Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Director of the Jann Benson Ethics Center, Colorado State University
Fort Collins, CO

17. Kathleen E. Bachynski, PhD, MPH
Postdoctoral Fellow, Division of Medical Humanities, NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

18. Timothy W. Kirk, PhD
Associate Professor of Philosophy, City University of New York, York College
New York, NY

19. Connie M. Ulrich, PhD, MSN, RN, FAAN
Lillian S. Brunner Chair, Professor of Bioethics and Nursing, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing
Philadelphia, PA

20. James J. McCartney, OSA, Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Philosophy, Villanova University
Villanova, PA

21. Anna Nolan, MD, MS
Associate Professor of Medicine and Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

22. Jordan MacKenzie, PhD
Assistant Professor/Faculty Fellow, NYU Center for Bioethics
New York, NY

23. Herb Leventer, PhD
Philosophy Department, Yeshiva University
Medical Ethics, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

24. Paul Applebaum, MD
Dollard Professor of Psychiatry, Medicine & Law, Columbia University
New York, NY

25. Linda Granowetter, MD
Pediatrics, NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

26. Patrick D. Herron, D.Be.
Director, Bioethics Education, Department of Family & Social Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY

27. Olivia Scheyer
Research Assistant, Division of Medical Ethics, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

28. Lisa Kearns, MS, MA
Senior Research Associate, Division of Medical Ethics, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

29. Robert McFadden
Pastor, Resurrection Baptist Church
Philadelphia, PA

30. Carolyn Riley Chapman, PhD, MS
Postdoctoral Fellow, Division of Medical Ethics, NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

31. Emily A. Largent, JD, PhD, RN
Assistant Professor of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

32. Christine Mitchell, RN, MS, MTS, FAAN
Executive Director, Center for Bioethics, Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA

33. Jennifer Walter, MD, PhD, MS
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics & Medical Ethics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Philadelphia, PA

34. Jane L. Rosenthal, MD, FAPM
Medical Director of Psychosocial Services, Perlmutter Cancer Center
Tisch Hospital Ethics Committee, NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

35. Ana Lita, PhD
Executive Director, Global Bioethics Initiative
New York, NY

36. Dorit Rubinstein Reiss, PhD, LLB
Professor of Law, UC Hastings College of the Law
San Francisco, CA

37. Paul Root Wolpe, PhD
Director, Center for Ethics, Emory University
Atlanta, GA

38. Bela Fishbeyn, MS
Executive Managing Editor, The American Journal of Bioethics
Stanford, CA

39. Edward J. Bergman, JD
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

40. Loren Wissner Greene, MD, MA
Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine, Chair of the Colloquium of Medical Ethics, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

41. Sheldon Krimsky, PhD
Lenore Stern Professor of Humanities & Social Sciences, Adjunct Professor of Public Health & Community Medicine, Tufts University
Boston, MA

42. Stuart J. Youngner, MD
Professor Bioethics and Psychiatry, Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, OH

43. Ford Vox, MD
Chair, Medical Ethics Committee, Shepherd Center
Board of Directors, Mental Health America of Georgia
Atlanta, GA

44. Wendell Wallach, M.Ed.
Senior Advisor, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY
Technology and Ethics Chair, Yale Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics
New Haven, CT

45. Krista Halpin, JD
Associate, Spolzino, Smith, Buss & Jacobs, LLP
New York, NY

46. Kyle G. Everly, Esquire
Attorney, Nicolson Law Group
Media, PA

47. Tom Rickards, MA
Chair of Religious Studies and Philosophy Department, William Penn Charter School
Philadelphia, PA

48. Leslie Francis, JD, PhD
Distinguished Alfred C. Emery Professor of Law, Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT

49. Robert Baker, PhD
William D. Williams Professor of Philosophy, Union College
Professor of Bioethics, Bioethics Program of Clarkson University-Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai
New York, NY

50. Mark G. Kuczewski, PhD
The Fr. Michael I. English, SJ, Professor of Medical Ethics Director, Neiswanger Institute for Bioethics & Health Policy and Chair, Department of Medical Education, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine
Chicago, IL

51. Steve Miles, MD
Professor Emeritus, Department of Medicine, Center for Bioethics, University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN

52. Stephen R. Latham, JD, PhD
Director, Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics, Yale University
New Haven, CT

53. Eric G. Campbell, PhD
Professor of Medicine, Director of Research, CU Center for Bioethics and Humanities, University of Colorado
Denver, CO

54, Amy L. McGuire, JD, PhD
Leon Jaworski Professor of Biomedical Ethics, Director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX

55. Thomas H. Murray, PhD
President Emeritus, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

56. Stephanie Morain, PhD, MPH
Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX

57. J. David Velleman, PhD
Professor of Philosophy and Bioethics, New York University
New York, NY

58. Holly K. Tabor, PhD
Associate Professor, Department of Medicine
Associate Director, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics
Stanford, CA

59. Michael Yudell, PhD, MPH
Chair and Associate Professor, Director of the Program in Public Health Ethics, Department of Community Health and Prevention, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University
Philadelphia, PA

60. Gabriel Lázaro-Muñoz, PhD, JD, MBE
Assistant Professor, Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX

61. Christopher Thomas Scott, PhD
Dalton Tomlin Professor of Medical Ethics and Health Policy
Associate Director, Health Policy, Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX

62. Carolyn Neuhaus, PhD
Research Scholar, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

63. Alexander Guerrero, JD, PhD
Henry Rutgers Term Chair, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers University
New Brunswick, NJ

64. Robert Cook-Deegan, MD
Professor, School for the Future of Innovation in Society, Consortium for Science, Policy & Outcomes, Arizona State University
Tempe, AZ

65. Alan R. Fleischman, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, Senior Associate, Center for Bioethics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore
Bronx, NY

66. Elizabeth Harman, PhD
Laurance S. Rockefeller Professor of Philosophy and Human Values, Princeton University
Princeton, NJ

67. Erik Parens, PhD
Senior Research Scholar, Director of the Initiative in Bioethics and the Humanities, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

68. Matthew Wynia, MD, MPH, FACP
Professor of Medicine, Director of the Center for Bioethics and Humanities, University of Colorado
Aurora, CO

69. Ronit Y. Stahl, PhD, MA
Fellow, Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

70. Jon F. Merz, JD, PhD
Associate Professor, Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

71. Daniel Wikler, PhD
Mary B. Saltonstall Professor of Ethics and Population Health, Department of Global Health & Population, Harvard, T.H. Chan School of Public Health
Boston, MA

72. Andrew Siegel, MD
Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Philadelphia, PA

73. Pilar N. Ossorio, PhD, JD
Professor of Law and Bioethics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison
Ethics Scholar-in-Residence at the Morgridge Institute for Research
Madison, WI

74. Thaddeus Mason Pope, JD, PhD
Director of the Health Law Institute,Professor of Law, Mitchell Hamline School of Law
Saint Paul, MN

75. David Magnus, PhD
Thomas A Raffin Professor of Medicine and Biomedical Ethics and Professor of Pediatrics, Stanford University
Stanford, CA

76. Susan M. Wolf, JD
McKnight Presidential Professor of Law, Medicine & Public Policy, University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, MN

77. Craig M. Klugman, PhD
Professor, DePaul University
Chicago, IL

78. Joseph J. Fins, MD, MACP, FRCP
The E. William Davis, Jr., M.D. Professor of Medical Ethics & Professor of Medicine, Chief of the Division of Medical Ethics, Weill Cornell Medical College
Solomon Center Distinguished Scholar in Medicine, Bioethics and the Law, Yale Law School
New York, NY

79. Michael Weisberg, PhD
Professor and Chair of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

80. Laura Handel, JD
Managing Attorney, Health, Education and Legal assistance Project: a Medical-Legal Partnership (HELP: MLP), Widener Delaware Law School
Wilmington, DE

81. Alan Regenberg, MBE
Director of Outreach & Research Support, Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics
Baltimore, MD

82. Alan Milstein, JD
Sherman, Silverstein, Kohl, Reese & Podolzky, P.A.
Moorestown, NJ

83. Stjepan Oreskovic, PhD
Vice President, Global Bioethics Initiative
New York, NY

84. Valerie Gutmann Koch, JD
Director of Law & Ethics, University of Chicago
Visiting Fellow, DePaul University College of Law
Chicago, IL

85. Shannon Mace, JD, MPH
Public Health Law Consultant, Health, Education and Legal Assistance Project: A Medical-Legal Partnership (HELP: MLP) at Widener University Delaware Law School
Wilmington, DE

86. J.S. Blumenthal-Barby, PhD
Cullen Associate Professor of Medical Ethics, Associate Director of Medical Ethics, Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX

87. Amy Sepinwall, PhD
Associate Professor, Legal Studies and Business Ethics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

88. Jeffrey Blustein, PhD
Arthur Zitrin Professor of Bioethics and Professor of Philosophy, City College, City University of New York,
New York, NY

89. Nita A. Farahany, PhD, JD
Professor of Law & Philosophy, Director of the Duke Initiative for Science & Society, Duke University
Durham, NC

90. Rev. Dr. Davida Foy Crabtree
United Church of Christ
Palos Verdes Estates, CA

91. Inmaculada de Melo-Martín, PhD, MS
Professor of Medical Ethics in Medicine, Professor of Medical Ethics in Reproductive Medicine, Professor of Healthcare Policy and Research, Division of Medical Ethics, Weill Cornell Medicine
Medical College-Cornell University
New York, NY

92. Carlos Pereira Di Salvo, PhD
Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

93. Joel Michael Reynolds, PhD
Rice Family Fellow in Bioethics and the Humanities, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

94. The Rev. Dr. Allie Perry, M.Div., D.Min.
Pastoral Counselor, Milford Pastoral Counseling Center
Milford, CT

95. Tia Powell, MD
Dr. Shoshanah Trachtenberg Frackman Faculty Scholar Chair in Biomedical Ethics, Director of the Montefiore Einstein Center for Bioethics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY

96. Lainie Friedman Ross, MD, PhD
Carolyn and Matthew Bucksbaum Professor of Clinical Ethics
Professor, Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, and Surgery, Associate Director, MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics, University of Chicago
Chicago, IL

97. Harald Schmidt, PhD
Assistant Professor,Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

98. Laurence B. McCullough, PhD
Adjunct Professor of Ethics in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University
New York, NY
Distinguished Emeritus Professor, Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX

99. Hadar Aviram, PhD
Harry and Lillian Hastings Research Chair and Professor of Law, UC Hastings College of the Law
San Francisco, CA

100. Shannon Vallor, PhD
William J. Rewak S.J. Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Faculty Scholar in the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara University
Santa Clara, CA

101. Lisa Miracchi, PhD
Assistant Professor of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

102. Christopher Robertson, JD, PhD
Professor of Law, University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ

103. Dónal O’Mathúna, PhD
Associate Professor, College of Nursing, The Ohio State University
Columbus, OH

104. Cyndi Reed Rickards,EdD
Associate Teaching Professor of Criminology & Justice Studies,Sr. Assistant Dean for Community Engagement in the College of Arts and Sciences, Drexel University
Philadelphia, PA

105. Matthew McCoy, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

106. Jacob Dahlke, MS-Bioethics
Ethics Director, Office of Healthcare Ethics, Nebraska Medicine
Omaha, NE

107. Joseph Stramondo, PhD
Assistant Professor in the Department of Philosophy, Core Faculty in the Institute for Ethics and Public Affairs, San Diego State University
San Diego, CA

108. James Tabery, PhD
Department of Philosophy, University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT

109. Diane E. Meier, MD
Catherine Gaisman Professor of Medical Ethics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine
New York, NY

110. Karen J. Maschke, PhD
Research Scholar, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

111. Mildred Cho, PhD
Professor of Medicine and Pediatrics, Associate Director, Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics, Stanford University
Stanford, CA

112. Robert I. Field, JD, MPH, PhD
Professor of Law at the Kline School of Law, Professor of Health Management and Policy at the Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University
Philadelphia, PA

113. Brian Berkey, PhD
Assistant Professor, Department of Legal Studies and Business Ethics and of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

114. Norman Daniels, PhD
Mary B. Saltonstall Professor of Population Ethics and Professor of Ethics and Population Health, Emeritus, Harvard University
Boston, MA

115. Mary Rorty, PhD
Clinical Asssociate Professor, Center for Biomedical Ethics, Stanford University
Stanford, CA

116. Kenneth W. Goodman, PhD
Professor of Medicine and Philosophy, Director of the Institute for Bioethics and Health Policy, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami
Miami, FL

117. Dan Brock, PhD
Emeritus Professor of Bioethics, Harvard University
Boston, MA

118. Kathleen E. Powderly, CNM, PhD
Director of the John Conley Division of Medical Ethics & Humanities, SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Brooklyn, NY

119. Sherry Turkle, PhD
Abby Rockefeller Mauzé Professor of the Social Studies of Science and Technology, Founding Director, Initiative for Technology and Self, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Boston, MA

120. Martha E. “Meg” Gaines, JD, LLM
Distinguished Clinical Professor of Law, Director of the Center for Patient Partnerships, University of Wisconsin Law School
Madison, WI

121. Emma Tumilty, PhD
Postdoctoral Fellow, Research Ethics & Clinical Ethics Fellow
Institute for Translational Sciences, University of Texas Medical Branch
Galveston, TX

122. Kenneth Prager, MD
Professor of Medicine and Director of Medical Ethics, Columbia University Medical Center
New York, NY

123. Lauren Sydney Flicker, JD, MBE
Associate Director of the Montfiore Einstein Center for Bioethics, Associate Director of the Einstein Cardozo Master of Science in Bioethics, Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology, Division of Bioethics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY

124. Jean-Christophe Bélisle-Pipon, PhD
Visiting Researcher, Petrie-Flom Center, Harvard Law School
Boston, MA

125. Holly Fernandez Lynch, JD, M.Be.
John Russell Dickson, MD Presidential Assistant Professor of Medical Ethics, Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

126. Kayhan Parsi, JD, PhD
Professor of Bioethics, Graduate Program Director, Neiswanger Institute for Bioethics, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine
Chicago, IL

127. Michael A. Grodin, MD
Professor, Center for Health Law, Ethics & Human Rights, Boston University School of Public Health
Boston, MA

128. Dena S. Davis, JD, PhD
Endowed Presidential Chair in Health (Humanities-Social Sciences), Professor of Bioethics, Professor of Religion Studies, Lehigh University
Bethlehem, PA

129. Alex John London, PhD
Clara L. West Professor of Ethics and Philosophy, Director of the Center for Ethics and Policy, Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA

130. Leigh Turner, PhD
Center for Bioethics, University of Minnesota

131. Bruce Gelb, MD
Department of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

132. Melissa M. Goldstein, JD
Associate Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University
Washington, DC

133. Thomas Wm. Mayo, JD
Professor of Law, SMU/Dedman School of Law
Adjunct Assoc. Professor, Internal Medicine, UT-Southwestern Medical School
Dallas, TX

134. Susan Gilbert
Director of Communications, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

135. Samuel Gorovitz, PhD, DSc(hon)
Professor of Philosophy, former Arts & Sciences Deam, Syracuse University
Syracuse, NY

136. Joan McIver Gibson, PhD
Bioethicist, Founder/Director (Retired) Health Sciences Ethics Program, Health Sciences Center, University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM

137. James F. Childress, PhD
Professor Emeritus, University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA

138. Lisa A. Eckenwiler, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Philosophy, Health Administration and Policy, George Mason University
Fairfax, VA

139. Barrie J. Huberman, PhD
Director of Clinical Ethics, Lenox Hill Hospital
New York, NY

140. Mildred Solomon, EdD
President, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

141. Celia B. Fisher, PhD
Marie Ward Doty University Chair in Ethics, Professor of Psychology, Director Center for Ethics Education, Director HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute, Fordham University
Bronx, NY

142. Christy L. Cummings, MD
Neonatologist, Ethics Associate, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School
Director of Medical Ethics & Humanities, Newborn Medicine, Boston Children’s Hospital, Division of Newborn Medicine
Boston, MA

143. Jeff Sebo, PhD
Clinical Assistant Professor of Environmental Studies, Affiliated Professor of Bioethics, Medical Ethics, and Philosophy, Director of the Animal Studies M.A. Program, New York University
New York, NY

144. Howard Tractman, MD
NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

145. Paul J. Cummins, PhD
Assistant Professor, The Bioethics Program, Icahn School of Medicine Mount Sinai, Department of Medical Education
New York, NY

146. Matthew Isenberg, MSW
Clinical Research Coordinator, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

147. Ruth Macklin, PhD
Distinguished University Professor Emerita, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Bronx, NY

148. Kata Chillag, PhD
Hubert H. Humphrey Distinguished Visiting Professor of Global Health, Macalester College
Saint Paul, MN

149. Allison Werner-Lin, PhD, LCSW
Assistant Professor of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

150. Rachel Zacharias
Project Manager and Research Assistant, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

151. Josephine Johnston, MBHL
Director of Research, Research Scholar, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

152. Hank Greely, JD
Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law, Stanford Law School
Stanford, CA

153. Sara F. Goldkind, MD, MA
Research & Clinical Bioethics Consultant, Goldkind Consulting, L.L.C.
Potomac, MD
Former, Senior Bioethicist at FDA, Office of the Commissioner
Silver Spring, MD

154. Mark R. Mercurio, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, Director of the Program for Biomedical Ethics, Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, CT

155. Louise P. King, MD, JD, FACOG
Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Director of Reproductive Ethics, Center for Bioethics Harvard Medical School
Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Boston, MA

156. Govind Persad, JD, PhD
Assistant Professor, Berman Institute of Bioethics, Johns Hopkins University & Department of Health Policy & Management, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health
Baltimore, MD

157. Frederick Naftolin, MD, D.Phil
Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Director of Reproductive Biology Research, Co-Director of NYU Interdisciplinary Program in Menopause Medicine, New York University
New York, NY

158. Lisa M Lee, PhD, MA, MS
Professor (Adjunct), Alden March Bioethics Institute, Albany Medical College
Albany, New York

159. Jeffrey R. Botkin, MD, MPH
Professor of Pediatrics, Chief of the Division of Medical Ethics and Humanities, Associate Vice President for Research, University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT

160. Ira Bedzow, PhD, MA
Director of Biomedical Ethics and Humanities , New York Medical College
Valhalla, NY

161. Douglas S. Diekema MD, MPH
Professor of Pediatrics and Bioethics & Humanities, University of Washington School of Medicine
Director of Education of the Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics, Seattle Children’s Hospital and Research Institute
Seattle, WA

162. Jason T. Eberl, PhD
Professor of Health Care Ethics, Albert Gnaegi Center for Health Care Ethics, Saint Louis University
St. Louis, MO

163. Kyle Ferguson, MPhil
Research Associate, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

164. Laurel J. Lyckholm, MD
Professor of Internal Medicine, Faculty, Program in Bioethics and Humanities, University of Iowa
Iowa City, IA

165. Deborah Ziring, MD
Associate Dean of Academic Affairs/UME-JeffMD, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University
Philadelphia, PA

166. Eric A. Feldman, JD, PhD
Deputy Dean for International Programs, Professor of Law, Professor of Health Policy and Medical Ethics, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

167. Michael A. DeVita, MD, FCCM, FRCP
Chief Medical Officer, Ambulatory Care Services, Harlem Hospital Center
New York, NY

168. Ruth Levy Guyer, PhD
Co-Director of the Arts and Ethics in Palliative Care, Hospice and Palliative Medicine Fellowship, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
Providence, RI

169. Terence Patterson, EdD, ABPP
Board Certified Couple and Family Psychologist, Professor and Licensed Psychologist, Fellow of the American Psychological Association, Counseling Psychology-School of Education, University of San Francisco
San Francisco, CA

170. S. Matthew Liao, PhD
Arthur Zitrin Professor of Bioethics and Director of the Center for Bioethics, New York University
New York, NY

171. Ron Barnette, PhD
Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Philosophy, Co-Founder for Professional and Applied Ethics, Valdosta State University
Valdosta, GA

172. Rabbi David Seth Kirshner
Immediate Past President of the NY Board of Rabbis, President of the NJ Board of Rabbis, Senior Rabbi at Temple Emanu-El
New York, NY

173. Nanette Elster, JD, MPH
Assistant Professor, Neiswanger Institute for Bioethics, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine
Chicago, IL

174. Bonnie Arzuaga, MD
Instructor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Ethics Associate, South Shore Hospital
South Weymouth, MA

175. Laura L. Kimberly, MSW, MBE
PhD Candidate, Columbia University School of Social Work
Associate of the Division of Medical Ethics, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

176. Pasquale Patrizio, MD, MBE, HCLD
Professor of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Director of the Yale Fertility Center & Fertility Preservation Program, Teacher at Yale Center for Bioethics
New Haven, CT

177. Bill Meadow, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, University of Chicago
Chicago, IL

178. Dennis H. Novack, MD
Professor of Medicine, Associate Dean of Medical Education, Drexel University College of Medicine
Philadelphia, PA

179. Aasim I. Padela, MD, MSc
Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Director of the Initiative on Islam and Medicine, Faculty at the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics, The University of Chicago
Chicago, IL

180. Andrea Kalfoglou, PhD
Associate Professor and Director of Health Administration and Policy Program, University of Maryland Baltimore County
Baltimore, MD

181. Jonathan W. Malino, PhD
Weissenfluh Professor of Ethics and Religion Emeritus, Guilford College
Guilford, NC

182. Jamie Lindemann Nelson, PhD
Professor in the Department of Philosophy and Center for Ethics and Humanities in the Life Science, Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI

183. Michael Gusmano, PhD
Associate Professor of Health Policy, Rutgers University
New Brunswick, NJ

184. Sergio Litewka, MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Surgery, Director of International Programs, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Institute for Bioethics and Health Policy
Miami, FL

185. Nina Mingioni, MD, FACP
Director of Phase 2: Core Clinical Rotations, Director of Undergraduate Medical Education, Internal Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University)
Associate Program Director of Internal Medicine Residency, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital
Philadelphia, PA

186. Jimmy Pontzer, MA
University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Clinical and Translational Science Center
Albuquerque, NM

187. Alice Herb, JD, LLM
Bioethicist, Clinical Professor Retired, SUNY Downstate Medical Center
Brooklyn, NY

188. Helen Egger, MD
Chair and Professor, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

189. Bruce Jennings, MA
Senior Fellow, Center for Humans and Nature

190. Zackary Berger, MD, PhD
Associate Professor, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Core Faculty, Berman Institute of Bioethics
Baltimore, MD

191. Susan O. Cassidy, MD, JD
CriticalMD

192. Katherine A. Hochman, MD, MBA, FHM
Associate Professor of Medicine, Associate Chair of Quality Medicine, Assistant Chief of Medicine, Section Chief of DGIMCI, NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

193. Anthony Burger, MS
Adjunct Instructor at Central Ohio Technical College
Newark, OH

194. Brian P. Bosworth, MD, FACG
Chief of Medicine, Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine, NYU Langone Tisch Hospital
New York, NY

195. Deborah J. Kaercher, MPH, PhD
Founding President & CEO, The Final Acts Project

196. Mary Drago, PhD
President, Arizona Bioethics Network

197. Betty Wolder Levin, PhD
Professor, Department of Community Health and Social Sciences, CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy
New York, NY

198. Charlotte H. Harrison, PhD, JD, MPH
Hospital Ethicist, Boston Children’s Hospital
Boston, MA

199. Rebecca Homan, PhD
Associate Professor, Denison University

200. Nancy Berlinger, PhD
Research Scholar, The Hastings Center

201. Cheryl Heaton, PhD
Dean, NYU College of Global Public Health
New York, NY

202. Anand Viswanathan, MD
Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

203. Barry Egener, MD
Medical Director, The Foundation for Medical Excellence
Portland, OR

204. Frank M. Volpicelli, MD
Chief of Medicine, NYU Langone Hospital Brooklyn
Brooklyn, NY
Assistant Professor of Medicine, NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

205. Michelle M. Mello, JD, PhD
Professor of Law, Stanford Law School
Professor of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford, CA

206. Alan Jay Weisbard
Professor Emeritus, University of Wisconsin Law School
Madison, WI

207. Kyle A. McGregor, PhD
Director of Pediatric Mental Health Ethics, Assistant Professor at the NYU Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry & Department of Population Health, Division of Medical Ethics
New York, NY

208. Lori Gruen, PhD
William Griffin Professor of Philosophy, Wesleyan University
Middletown, CT
Fellow, Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

209. Chelsea Rosenthal, JD, MA
Assistant Professor/Faculty Fellow, New York University Center for Bioethics
New York, NY

210. Cara Sedney, MD, MA
Assistant Professor, WVU School of Medicine
Morgantown, WV

211. Sarah C. Hull, MD, MBE
Clinical Faculty, Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine
New Haven, CT

212. Kelly Dineen, RN, JD, OhD
Director Health Law Program, Creighton University
Omaha, NE

213. Gia Merlo, MD, MBA
Assistant Professor, Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX

214. Heather Lau, MD, MS
Assistant Professor, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

215. Travis N. Rieder, PhD
Assistant Director of Education Initiatives & Research Scholar, Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics
Baltimore, MD

216. Negin Hajizadeh MD, MPH
Director of Decision Science, Center for Health Innovations and Outcomes Research (CHIOR), Associate Professor of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Pulmonary Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine and Northwell Health
Hofstra, NY

217. Sara Meeder
Director, Human Research Protections Office, Maimonides Medical Center
Brooklyn, NY

218. Carl Erik Fisher, M.D.
Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, Masters Program in Bioethics, Columbia University
New York, NY

219. Lindsay McNair, MD, MPH, MSBioethics
Boston University School of Public Health
Boston, MA

220. Gregory E. Kaebnick, PhD
Research Scholar and Editor of the Hastings Center Report, The Hastings Center
Garrison, NY

221. Valarie Blake, JD, MA
Associate Professor, WVU College of Law
Morgantown, WV

222. Kim Overby, MD, MBE
Professor of Practice, Department of Science and Society Studies, Cornell University, Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA

223. Barbara Kates-Garnick, PhD
Professor of Practice, Fletcher School, Tufts University
Sr. Fellow, Center for International Environment and Resource Policy
Boston, MA

224. Robert Fakheri MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, NYU Langone Health
New York, NY

225. Ted Hutchinson, MA
Executive Director, American Society of Law, Medicine, & Ethics

226. Gladys B. White, PhD
Adjunct Professor, Georgetown University School for Continuing Studies
Washington, DC

227. Joshua Chodosh, MD, MSHS, FACP
Professor of Medicine and Population Health, NYU School of Medicine, Director of the Freedman Program on Aging and Cognition, Co-Director of the NYU Aging Incubator
New York, NY

228. Jonathan Trerise, PhD, MA
Associate Professor, Philosophy, Coastal Carolina University
Conway, SC

229. Travis Timmerman, PhD
Associate Professor of Philosophy, Seton Hall University
South Orange, NJ
230. L. Syd M. Johnson, PhD
Associate Professor of Philosophy & Bioethics, Michigan Technological University
Houghton, MI

231. Barbara L. Chanko, RN, MBA
Associate, Division of Medical Ethics, NYU School of Medicine
New York, NY

232. Brookes Brown, PhD
Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Program in Law, Liberty, and Justice, Clemson University
Clemson, SC

INTERNATIONAL SIGNATORIES

Sarah J.L. Edwards, BSc, MA, PhD
Senior Lecturer in Research Ethics and Governance, University College London
London, United Kingdom

Akira Akabayashi, MD, PhD
Professor and Chair, Department of Biomedical Ethics, University of Tokyo
Tokyo, Japan

Timothy Caulfield, LLM, FRSC, FCAHS
Canada Research Chair in Health Law & Policy, Trudeau Fellow and Professor, Faculty of Law and School of Public Health, University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta

Thalia Arawi, PhD
Founding Director, Salim El-Hoss Bioethics & Professionalism Program
Clinical Bioethicist and Clinical Ethics Consultant, Certified Healthcare Mediator
Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut &Medical Center
Beirut, Lebanon

Judy Illes, CM, PhD
Canada Research Chair in Neuroethics, Professor of Neurology, Department of Medicine, The University of British Columbia
Director, Neuroethics Canada
Vancouver, Canada

Vardit Ravitsky, PhD
Bioethics Professor, School of Public Health, University of Montreal
Vice President, International Association of Bioethics
Montreal, Canada

Carolyn McLeod, PhD
Professor, Department of Philosophy, Western University
London, Canada

Hazar Haidar, PhD
Postdoctoral Fellow, Institute for Health and Social Policy – McGill University and Ethics Research Center-Université de Montréal
Montreal, Canada

Bartha Maria Knoppers, PhD
Director of the Centre of Genomics and Policy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Genetics, McGill University
Canada Research Chair in Law and Medicine
Montreal, Canada

Lisa Schwartz, BA, MA, PhD
Professor in Health Research Evidence and Impact
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario

Angel Petropanagos, PhD
Quality Improvement Ethicist, William Osler Health System, Dalhousie University
Impact Ethics, Co-Managing Editor
Nova Scotia, Canada

Udo Schuklenk, PhD
Ontario Research Chair in Bioethics, Queen’s University
Kingston, Ontario

Daniel Weinstock, PhD
Director, Institute for Health and Social Policy, McGill University
Montreal, Quebec

Ubaka Ogbogu, LLB, BL, LLM, SJD
Assistant Professor, Faculties of Law and Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta

Ryoa Chung, PhD
Associate Professor International Ethics / Global Public Health Ethics, Département de philosophie, Université de Montréal
Montreal, Quebec

Regina Rini, PhD
Canada Research Chair in Philosophy of Moral and Social Cognition, Department of Philosophy, York University
Toronto, Canada

Jaime Flamenbaum, MD MSc
Senior Ethics Advisor of Science, Knowledge Translation and Ethics, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Government of Canada
Canada

Ricardo A. Ayala, PhD
Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Sociology, Ghent University
Ghent, Belgium

Christine Tappolet, PhD
Professor, Director of the Centre de Recherche en Éthique (CRÉ), Université de Montréal
Montreal, Canada

Samia Hurst, MD
Director, Institute for Ethics, History, and the Humanities. University of Geneva Medical School
Geneva, Switzerland

Judit Sandor, PhD
Professor & Bioethicist, Director of the Center for Ethics and Law in Biomedicine, Central European University
Budapest, Hungary

Patrick J. McDonald, MD, MHSc, FRCSC
Head- Division of Neurosurgery, BC Children’s Hospital, Associate Professor in the Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia
Faculty, Neuroethics Canada
Vancouver, Canada

Julian Kinderlerer, PhD
Emeritus Professor, University of Cape Town and Immediate Past President, European Group on Ethics
Cape Town, South Africa

Adelaide Doussau, MD, PhD
Postdoctoral Fellow, Biomedical Ethics Unit, McGill University School of Medicine
Montreal, Canada

Phoebe Friesen, PhD
Ethox Centre, University of Oxford
Oxford, United Kingdom

Prof. Raphael Cohen-Almagor
Director, MESG, School of Law and Politics, University of Hull
Kingston upon Hull, United Kingdom

Carolyn Ells, PhD
Associate Professor of Medicine of Biomedical Ethics Unit, McGill University
Montreal, Canada

Sonya de Laat, PhD
Postdoctoral Fellow in Humanitarian Healthcare Ethics, McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario

Bryn Williams-Jones, PhD
Full professor and Director of the Bioethics Program, School of Public Health, Member of the Centre for Ethics Research and the Public Health Institute, Université de Montréal
Montreal, Canada

J. de Jeu MA(Ed)
Medical Ethicist, Consultant Leadership Development
Wenckebach Intsitute, University Medical Centre Groningen
The Netherlands

Prof. dr. Nine V.A.M. Knoers
Clinical Geneticist, Chair Department Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen University Medical Centre Groningen
The Netherlands

Malou Luchtenberg
MD/PhD-student at Department of Pediatrics and Ethics, University Medical Center Groningen University Medical Centre Groningen
The Netherlands

Marije Brouwer
PhD Candidate in Ethics and Pediatrics, University Medical Center Groningen University Medical Centre Groningen
The Netherlands

Els Maeckelberghe, STL, PhD
Senior Lecturer in Biomedical Ethics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen
The Netherlands

Annie Janvier, MD, PhD
Department of Pediatrics and Clinical Ethics, Associated Professor of Pediatrics and Clinical Ethics, University of Montreal
Neonatologist, Clinical Ethicist and Researcher, Sainte-Justine Hospital
Montreal, Canada

Alexandre Erler, DPhil
Research Assistant Professor, CUHK Centre for Bioethics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Nancy C. Doubleday, PhD
HOPE Chair in Peace and Health, Associate Professor and Member, Law Society of Ontario, McMaster University
Canada
Hamilton, Ontario

Dra. Florencia Luna
Investigadora Principal CONICET, Programa de Bioetica-FLACSO, Centro Colaborativo OMS-OPS
Brazil

Jackie Leach Scully, PhD, FAcSS
Professor of Social Ethics and Bioethics, Newcastle University
Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Cécile Bensimon, MA, PhD
Director, Ethics and Professional Affairs, Canadian Medical Association
Adjunct Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa
Ottawa, Canada

Dr. Anant Bhan
Researcher in Bioethics and Global Health, Adjunct Professor, Yenepoya (deemed to be University)
India

Vanessa Gruben
Associate Professor, University of Ottawa
Ottawa, Canada

Prof. Maria Giovanna Ruberto
Prof. of Bioethics, Dipartimento di Sanità Pubblica, Medicina, Sperimentale e Forense, Università di Pavia
Pavia, Italy

Stuart Nicholls, BSc(Hons), MSc, MRes, PhD
Senior Clinical Research Associate, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute
Ottawa, Canada

Hila Rimon-Greenspan
Researcher, Disability Studies (Independent), Advisor of the The Israeli Institute on Cognitive Accessibility, Ono Academic College & Ami Association
Israel

Reinder Broekstra LL.B., MSc
PhD Candidate Epidemiology, Psychology & Medical Ethics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen
The Netherlands

Jennifer Fishman
Associate Professor, Biomedical Ethics Unit, McGill University
Montreal, Canada

Marcin Waligora, PhD
Fulbright Visiting Scholar at the Center for Bioethics, Harvard Medical School
Associate Professor, Research Ethics in Medicine Study Group, Department of Philosophy and Bioethics, Jagiellonian University Medical College
Krakow, Poland

Christine Straehle, PhD
Associate Professor for Ethics, Applied Ethics and International Affairs, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa
Ottawa, Canada

[*]Institutions are provided for informational purposes only. The content of this letter is solely the responsibility of the signatories and does not necessarily reflect the official views of the signatories’ institutions.

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