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Experimental evidence showing that physician guidance promotes perceptions of physician empathy
Daniel Russell Hans, Priyanka Dubé & Jason Adam Wasserman

Background: This article reports a study that assessed the link between physician guidance and perceptions of empathy. Previous literature suggests that patients prefer medical decision making to be a collaborative process. However, no study has specifically tested how physician guidance affects the way the patient perceives his or her physician’s empathy. As a period of laissez-faire autono...

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Improving third-year medical students' competency in clinical moral reasoning: Two interventions
Paul J. Cummins, Katherine J. Mendis, Robert Fallar, Amanda Favia, Lily Frank, Carolyn Plunkett, Nada Gligorov & Rosamond Rhodes

Background: This article reports on the impact of two ethics interventions implemented for third-year medical students. Previous research validated our institution’s model for assessing medical students’ competency in medical ethics. Confident in our assessment model, the bioethics faculty sought to improve student performance. Methods: We designed and implemented two additions to the ...

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Religious identity and workplace discrimination: A national survey of American Muslim physicians
Aasim I. Padela, Huda Adam, Maha Ahmad, Zahra Hosseinian & Farr Curlin

Background:  Invidious discrimination is unreasonable and unethical. When directed against patients, such discrimination violates the respect for persons at the heart of bioethics. Might such discrimination also be directed at times toward physicians themselves? Studies of workplace discrimination have largely focused on race and gender, with few examining whether religious identity attracts disc...

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Lay attitudes toward trust, uncertainty, and the return of pediatric research results in biobanking
John Lynch, Janelle Hines, Sarah Theodore & Monica Mitchell

Background: Trust plays a role in participants’ reactions to clinical residual biobanks. The purpose of this study is to assess whether trust in medical researchers and negative reactions to uncertainty influence the attitudes of parents of pediatric research participants toward the return of genomic research results from biobanking. Methods: Focus groups were conducted in collaboration with two...

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Clarifying ethical responsibilities in pediatric biobanking
Merle Spriggs & Craig L. Fry

Background: The creation of biobanks for storage of human specimens and use in health and medical research is expanding globally. Biobanks hold significant potential to facilitate such research. However, important ethical questions arise, particularly in the pediatric setting, in relation to consent, future use, and the balance of benefits against potential harms. To date, these ethical issues hav...

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A pilot study of neonatologists' decision-making roles in delivery room resuscitation counseling for periviable births
Brownsyne Tucker Edmonds, Fatima McKenzie, Janet E. Panoch, Douglas B. White & Amber E. Barnato

Background: Relatively little is known about neonatologists’ roles in helping families navigate the difficult decision to attempt or withhold resuscitation for a neonate delivering at the threshold of viability. Therefore, we aimed to describe the “decision-making role” of neonatologists in simulated periviable counseling sessions. Methods: We conducted a qualitative content analysis of ...

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Does promoting research advance planning in a general elderly population enhance completion of a research directive and proxies' predictive ability? a randomized controlled trial
Gina Bravo, Lise Trottier, Marie-France Dubois, Marcel Arcand, Danièle Blanchette, Anne-Marie Boire-Lavigne, Maryse Guay, Paule Hottin, Julie Lane, Suzanne Bellemare & Karen Painter

Background: Communicating wishes regarding future research participation in the event of incapacity may help others make enrollment decisions that are more consistent with these wishes. We tested whether an advance planning intervention (1) motivated older adults to document their wishes regarding future research participation and (2) guided proxies in making hypothetical research decisions that a...

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Concerns about genetic testing for schizophrenia among young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis
Ryan E. Lawrence, Phoebe Friesen, Gary Brucato, Ragy R. Girgis & Lisa Dixon

Background: Genetic tests for schizophrenia may introduce risks and benefits. Among young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis, little is known about their concerns and how they assess potential risks. Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis to ask about their concerns. Results: Participants expressed concerns about test reliab...

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Promoting equity through health systems research in low- and middle-income countries: Practices of researchers
Bridget Pratt, Katharine A. Allen & Adnan A. Hyder

Background: Health systems research is increasingly identified as an indispensable means to achieve the goal of health equity between and within countries. While conceptual work has explored what form of health systems research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) is needed to promote health equity, there have been few attempts to investigate whether it is being performed in practice. Method...

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Ethical challenges in designing and implementing health systems research: Experiences from the field
Adnan Hyder & Carleigh Krubiner

Background: Health systems research (HSR) seeks to generate knowledge to improve the mechanisms for delivering quality health services and improving population health outcomes. HSR covers a wide range of research questions, including health financing, service delivery, human resources for health, and quality improvement. Because HSR has its own definitions, methods, and analytic approaches, there ...

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