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The Potential for Infrastructure Benefits and the Responsiveness Requirement
David Wendler

The distribution of resources around the globe is characterized by staggering inequalities and inequities, with the result that individuals in lower income countries have greater disease burden and shorter lives than individuals in high-income countries. Commentators on research ethics are well aware of this concern and have searched for ways to design and conduct clinical trials to help to addres...

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Target Article

Clinical Trials Infrastructure as a Quality Improvement Intervention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Avram Denburg, Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo & Steven Joffe

Mounting evidence suggests that participation in clinical trials confers neither advantage nor disadvantage on those enrolled. Narrow focus on the question of a “trial effect,” however, distracts from a broader mechanism by which patients may benefit from ongoing clinical research. We hypothesize that the existence of clinical trials infrastructure—the organizational culture, systems, and ex...

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Not Just “Study Drugs” for the Rich: Stimulants as Moral Tools for Creating Opportunities for Socially Disadvantaged Students
Keisha Shantel Ray

An argument in the cognitive enhancement literature is that using stimulants in populations of healthy but socially disadvantaged individuals mistakenly attributes pathology to nonpathological individuals who experience social inequalities. As the argument goes, using stimulants as cognitive-enhancing drugs to solve the social problem of poorly educated students in inadequate schools misattributes...

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